The provincial representative of the Spanish government, Maria Gamez, said that firefighters using a robot camera in the early hours of Monday found a bag of candy that the boy was carrying when he went missing. Civil Guard spokesman Bernardo Molto told Spanish public broadcaster TVE that efforts would now focus on using more sophisticated equipment to widen the hole while also digging separate tunnels to access the shaft. Log in No account? Sign up Log out news. News Corp Australia Network January 15, am.
Share on Facebook. Roxette singer dead at This has forced the movement to be a space where feminists need to engage in dialogues with others and to acknowledge other points of views while everyone works towards overcoming patriarchal systems.
Feminism is plural. Feminism has never been about a singular movement, singular ideology or being monolithic. It allows new points of views and different approaches to solving problems. Fourth-wave feminism is about fighting patriarchal systems, denouncing violence against women, and discrimination and inequality faced by women.
It is about creating real and effective equality between women and men. One of the most unifying elements of Spanish fourth-wave feminism is sexual violence. Feminist Alde! The issue is important given the prevalence of such violence in Spanish society. A study found that Of these , women from the region, most were under the age of Only Women do not report out of fear, fear of not being believed or fear of being exposed or of being question, out of a lack of confidence that the judicial system will treat them fairly or fear that the judicial system will attack them for reporting the crime.
In , over 1, Spanish women were murdered by their partners.
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Male voices are viewed as important in the fourth-wave. Sexual violence and sexual assault can only be reduced in Spain if men question traditional Spanish masculinity that says this is acceptable. Men's voices going silent is viewed by Spanish fourth-wavers as being silent accomplices.
On 25 November , large numbers of women took to the streets across Spain to protest against patriarchal violence. Fourth-wave feminism also involves a rejection of prostitution. Philosopher Alicia Miyares says this has made the practice a new form of exploitation, treating women's bodies as commodities over which men have taken control. Fourth-wave feminism draws from second-wave ideologies and opposes pornography. The Council of Ministers announced a plan on 14 May to change Spain's abortion laws, allowing women to have abortions without a stated reason up until 14 weeks, and with the reason of fetal abnormalities or risk of physical or mental health of the mother up to week The age of majority to make the decision to have an abortion was to be 16, and the law would make clear that no woman could be sent to prison for having an abortion.
This was approved by the Plenary Congress on 17 December by a vote of in favor and opposed. It was then passed by the Spanish Senate on 24 February , with voting in favor, voting against and 1 person abstaining. The day had been created in Latin America during the s. The demonstration took place against a backdrop of an expected announcement by Partido Popular Minister of Justice Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón announcing plans to introduce new, restrictive abortion measures that would set abortion legality back to a state prior to its legalization in Protests took place in Barcelona and Madrid.
The Madrid demonstration was organized by Commission of Feminisms of M , lasted two hours and involved marching from Puerta de Toledo to the Plaza del Sol. Event spokesperson Luisi Acevedo said of the event, "To the political and economic context that they have created, the Government also adds the ideological question that responds to the interests of ultraconservative parties and movements. They want to put us back in the role of the woman in charge, but we want to tell them that we are subjects with the capacity to decide about our life.
A particular concern of fourth-wave Spanish feminists is the credibility of women's voices. The assumed lack of credibility of women speaking out means that women are disadvantaged when reporting sexual harassment gender violence or sexual assault.
This lack of credibility is viewed by fourth-wave feminists as endangering the lives of women; they are unable to turn to state institutions for protections. The judiciary frequently does not trust women's voices. According to Varela, this is because "they consider that we have to show that we have defended ourselves tooth and nail [or that] we even have to go with our heads under our arms to make us believe that we have been attacked.
Spanish fourth-wave feminism has focused on the need for equal maternity and paternity rights. This is because parents having equal rights makes it easier to end cultural barriers that suggest women should remain in the home and take care of the children. It economically enables men the ability to be more involved in fatherhood from the start, either at birth or when they adopt a child. In Spain, surrogacy is referred to as "vientres de alquiler" which literally translates to "rented wombs".
Fourth-wave Spanish feminists reject the concept of surrogacy. They see the practice as the capitalizing of female bodies for the benefit of men. Across its various presence on different social network, it has more than 10, followers. They see the commercial and altruistic practice of womb renting as exalting of fatherhood while discarding the value of mothers.
Despite the cancellation, they marched in front of the hotel to bring awareness to the issue and how they did not thing renting wombs should be acceptable in Spain. The topic of rented wombs was a big one during the Spanish general elections. Ciudadanos became the biggest Spanish political party to support the practice, with the party's leader Albert Rivera claiming the practice was feminist.
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The party's candidate for mayor of Madrid Begoña Villacís said, "Everything that implies the absence of parents is feminist. I claim my autonomy. The State can not be my father and tell me what I can and can not do with my body. You can put caution, but not tell me what I can do. The Barcelona-based group 50a50 and the Onsónlesdones initiative both were part of fourth-wave feminist movements to address issues around wage parity women face. They are comparable to Sheryl Sandberg 's Lean In movement.
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When men and women work the same job, they should earn the same pay. There is the potential for judicial oversight when this does not happen. In Spain, the gender wage gap is more a result of the feminization of some jobs, which consequently result in lower pay.
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Jobs given to women tend to be contracted out, with women getting less employment rights and lower pay as a result. Women are also likely to be offered more part-time contracts than men, which impacts their social security contributions and their ability to save for retirement. Most do not gain positions of power within this system. Andrea Dworkin has been a major influence on fourth-wave Spanish feminists, especially during the period of the late s and early s when many people had assumed feminism as a political movement in Spain was dead.
In a interview, she said, "In feminism there seems to be no plan, no political organization. That has been the biggest gap between other feminists and me. I believe that the feminist movement is a political movement, and a political movement has objectives and strategy, and advances, and sometimes suffers defeats, but then it continues. A large number of women felt very good about discovering things they had not known before about the history and lives of women, but they were not prepared to strategically decide what we have to do, what we want and how we do it.
In , she said, "The official history of feminism is, fundamentally, a story that perpetuates the silence of autonomous thinking capacity in the history of women, and of feminism as a civilizing project; that is, it silences the possibility of a civilization other than the one in force.
Fourth-wave feminists draw inspiration from a number of historical and modern feminists texts. During the s, conservative figures emerged around the globe that challenged gains women had made in the previous. This included figures such as Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. While there was a lot of optimism surrounding the creation of these bodies, they also served to weaken feminist movements by having the state take over the implementation of feminist goals.
Spanish fourth-wave feminism started during the s, as lipstick feminism and consumerist feminism was slowly starting to come to an end and as Spanish feminist were rejecting queer theory espoused by American academics. The movement traces its roots to the murder of Ana Orantes in Granada on 17 December Similar conversations took place at other television networks and media organizations across the country. From their positions in the media, they talked about a number of issues, mostly centered around sexist violence, both as a problem and its portrayal in the media.
They later would go on to talk about Spain's gender parity pay problems and the glass ceiling for Spanish women. These journalists would also be the first ones to talk about taking activism to virtual spaces.
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Early on, this new wave started rejecting academics like Judith Butler and other queer theorists, who during the late s and early s sought to erase women as political subjects by reframing everything as gender, by hiding the fact that aggressors against women were men and excusing men for their violence and oppression of women, of hiding the existing of lesbians, bisexuals, transexual and asexual women as specific groups of oppressed people.
Fourth-wave Spanish feminism is about reclaiming the word woman, and reclaiming the importance of the sexual and reproductive organs of women. Over the next five years, coverage of the topic of violence against women would continue in the media. The Tani case, where a woman who was granted a pardon for a prison sentence in October as a result of her killing her abusive husband. This sparked a nationwide conversation about gender violence. Castilla-La Mancha President José Bono stepped into the discussion by suggesting the regional government should publish a list of all men convicted of killing their girlfriends and wives in order to further protect women.
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He continued to debate this issue in the media into January The law was passed unanimously in the Congreso de Diputados. Another important law passed during this movement included the Law for effective equality of women and men. Social media would have an amplifying effect as the fourth-wave feminist movement began to grow. Vox was opposed to and wanted to see it overturned. Her disappearance attracted national media attention. By 29 January, friends, classmates, neighbors and strangers had been mobilized on social media to solicit information to locate her and created montages to remember her.
A video on the social network Tuenti received 10, visits within days. Police went into lock down, suggesting that the girl had left voluntarily.
On 4 February , the police say the girl did not voluntarily disappear. Three days later, on Saturday 7 February , people again took to the streets. Their number increased by over a thousand to around 3, They demand that the government increase the number of police assigned to the case. Supporters paper the city with posters featuring del Castillo image. A week later, the police arrest her ex-boyfriend, year-old Miguel Carcaño, who had confessed to murdering del Castillo during a fight by hitting her with an ashtray and then, with the help of a friend, dumping her body in the Guadalquivir River.